Rant from The Past & the Present Updates – 2019




2019 ..

Alright, back to the desk again from the past.

I had been busy a quite sometime now & had to make various research available for references. I had pulled up https://pwntoken.github.io for this very reason & however it now seems tremendous efforts to maintain the platform (Octopress) as most of the developers have left support.

Having pointed that out – I’ve decided to migrate all my research posts along with trying to fix the images where required to wordpress platform & continue maintaining this space. It’s been a jerky ride & all the posts from the past had been recorded solely for own tracking & references – however this could be useful to rest of the content assessors.

It’s 2019! A whole-lot has been at desk to record & put across the table. The blog shall no more contain any references to personal academic records – However I plan to record security research content along with migration which should be possible after alot of efforts invested with fixing missing images, hyperlinks, etc.  Year 2019 & prior where I left over had seen more of security landscape changes, shift-left approaches & a ton of interesting security techniques to cover including & not limited to:

  1. Agile Based Application Security
  2. IoT Security being pushed to the Edge
  3. Salesforce Penetration Testing
  4. Sharepoint Security Testing
  5. IPTV Security Assessments
  6. New Security Attack vectors

Since, security in itself has a wide coverage & has various inter-related domains – I shall be able to retain Application Security content as of present while I work on the rest & phase them out for releases.

Other transforms:
  1. A new visibility – I intend to make the blog easier for reference purposes with few glitches to be fixed.
  2. Optimized experience for commentators & response time to questions-asked.
  3. Probably I shall also try including polls to certain posts which requires opinions.
  4. Active blogging on security research content & day-to-day (or weekly) on new learning front.

I look forward to yet continue with the content as I intend to track all my records & that should entirely be point of the blog.

Readers are welcome to use the content with prior consent & due-credits where required.

- Shritam Bhowmick
Application Security Research (http://www.pwntoken.github.io/)

Knowing the terminologies beyond being an Ignorant.

Terminologies Beyond being an Ignorant.

There is no software that can hack facebook passwords (except key logging and phishing) and this goes same with e-mail account hacking. And these are some of the queries and desires one could start off primitive constructional hacking from, but they often fall off the edge and go destructive blackhat hacking for the curiosity. Curiosity is such an agent which could change and push forward the envelope. But this, if not done the right way will only lead to false reality of what is really not constructional nor is the reality in itself. Every one else seem tired of the questions and yet there really seems to be confusion on what to admire, are the guys who work hard to be on the white side, or the guys who still work hard at the black side of breaking the security. Now when I say ‘security’, strictly it does not have to be application security or network security, think bigger and there is physical security, mobile security, personal security; a person who bypass security or any counter-measures which are in place to prohibit access is known to be generally called as a ‘cracker‘ or a ‘hacker‘.

But don’t get hooked by the terms. They are both very different. It depends on the person on which side he chose to be. That is if a person has chosen the darker side, he would be in a long run be called and termed as a cracker. If not, he belongs to the ‘hacker’ category. And the latter is the category we would be talking about since I have really no interest on the other side of the fence where relatively today or later, things keep getting worse with law enforcement going stricter. Now, a cowboy fro curiosity might just explore both the sides and this is the gray area. Such people would be called as a Gray Hat. Let’s walk straight to the points and see some terminologies which could be mentioned to illuminate some of the people who had been missing a lot of what, why, how and the where’s. Here are some terminologies related to computer science but are inclined on the side of ‘computer hacks’ on a broader scope.

Kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel’s responsibilities include managing the system’s resources (the communication between hardware and software components). Usually as a basic component of an operating system, a kernel can provide the lowest-level abstraction layer for the resources (especially processors and I/O devices) that application software must control to perform its function. It typically makes these facilities available to application processes through inter-process communication mechanisms and system calls.

Linux is a computer operating system which is based on free and open source software. Although many different varieties of Linux exist, all are Unix-like and based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel. The Linux was originally a ‘kernel’ where lines of code were added by the community later to make it better and better and now, Linux has so many distributions with 1000’s of lines of code and utilities.

An exploit (from the verb to exploit, in the meaning of using something to one’s own advantage) is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized). This frequently includes such things as gaining control of a computer system.

A shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users of an operating system which provides access to the services of a kernel. However, the term is also applied very loosely to applications and may include any software that is “built around” a particular component, such as web browsers and email clients that are “shells” for HTML rendering engines. The name shell originates from shells being an outer layer of interface between the user and the internals of the operating system (the kernel).

PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.

JQuery is a cross-browser JavaScript library designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. It was released in January 2006 at BarCamp NYC by John Resig. Used by over 49% of the 10,000 most visited websites, jQuery is the most popular JavaScript library in use today.

A network host is a computer connected to a computer network. A network host may offer information resources, services, and applications to users or other nodes on the network. A network host is a network node that is assigned a network layer host address.

Algorithm: In mathematics and computer science an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. In simple words an algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculations.

There are many websites that can be searched for vulnerabilities and can be hacked but if you are a real hacker then you should select the website and then try to hack it and this is termed as target hacking.

A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay inter-network. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When data comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. Routers perform the “traffic directing” functions on the Internet.

A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the inter-network until it gets to its destination node.

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.

BB5 unlocking in Nokia phones is not possible to install unsigned OS in Nokia (not simlock).

The Metasploit Project is an open-source computer security project which provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development. Its most well-known sub-project is the Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing exploit code against a remote target machine. Other important sub-projects include the Opcode Database,shell code archive, and security research.

There is not a method to decrypt nokia MCUSW file and change it because if we do it then the check sum is changed than that of phone and its not installed. Symbian can be hacked by using ROM patcher and hello.

Free hosting websites don’t allow to use rapid leech script and other forums.

Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix) is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. The Unix operating system was first developed in assembly language.

A scripting language, script language, or extension language is a programming language that allows control of one or more applications. “Scripts” are distinct from the core code of the application, as they are usually written in a different language and are often created or at least modified by the end-user. Scripts are often interpreted from source code or bytecode

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in Web applications that enables attackers to inject client-side script into Web pages viewed by other users. A cross-site scripting vulnerability may be used by attackers to bypass access controls such as the same origin policy. This is a Application (Web Application) Security vulnerability and could be classified into different types of Cross Site Scripting attacks such as persistent, non-persistent and DOM-based. There are contexts which are bypassed with using certain characters if not already black-listed or the application isn’t using white-list for allowing only certain legacy characters into the application input. Output encoding is one of the many methods to stop this kind of attack.

A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of the concerted efforts of a person, or multiple people to prevent an Internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at all, temporarily or indefinitely

A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies including Ethernet. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model.

Social engineering is the art of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. While similar to a confidence trick or simple fraud, the term typically applies to trickery or deception for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or computer system access; in most cases the attacker never comes face-to-face with the victim.

Rooting is a process that allows users of mobile phones and other devices running the Android operating system to attain privileged control (known as “root access”) within Android’s Linux subsystem with the goal of overcoming limitations that carriers and manufacturers put on some devices. It is analogous to jailbreaking on devices running the Apple iOS operating system.

Tethering means sharing the Internet connection of an Internet-capable mobile phone with other devices. This sharing can be offered over a wireless LAN (Wi-Fi), or over Bluetooth, or by physical connection using a cable. In the case of tethering over wireless LAN, the feature may be branded as a mobile hotspot. The Internet-connected mobile phone acts as a portable router when providing tethering services to others.

Malware, short for malicious software, consists of programming (code, scripts, active content, and other software) designed to disrupt or deny operation, gather information that leads to loss of privacy or exploitation, gain unauthorized access to system resources, and other abusive behavior.The expression is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or program code.

A honeypot is a trap set to detect, deflect, or in some manner counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. Generally it consists of a computer, data, or a network site that appears to be part of a network, but is actually isolated and monitored, and which seems to contain information or a resource of value to attackers.

A cache is a component that transparently stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster. The data that is stored within a cache might be values that have been computed earlier or duplicates of original values that are stored elsewhere. If requested data is contained in the cache (cache hit), this request can be served by simply reading the cache, which is comparatively faster. Otherwise (cache miss), the data has to be recomputed or fetched from its original storage location, which is comparatively slower. Hence, the more requests can be served from the cache the faster the overall system performance.

A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is software that appears to perform a desirable function for the user prior to run or install, but (perhaps in addition to the expected function) steals information or harms the system. The term is derived from the Trojan Horse story in Greek mythology.

Overclocking is the process of operating a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was specified by the manufacturer.

The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm is a widely used cryptographic hash function that produces a 128-bit (16-byte) hash value., MD5 has been employed in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check data integrity.

An assembly language is a low-level programming language for computers, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other programmable devices. It implements a symbolic representation of the machine codes and other constants needed to program a given CPU architecture.

A hash function is any algorithm or subroutine that maps large data sets to smaller data sets, called keys. For example, a single integer can serve as an index to an array (associative array). The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes,hash sums, check-sums or simply hashes.

In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer’s boundary and overwrites adjacent memory. This is a special case of violation of memory safety. Buffer overflows can be triggered by inputs that are designed to execute code, or alter the way the program operates. This may result in erratic program behavior, including memory access errors, incorrect results, a crash, or a breach of system security. They are thus the basis of many software vulnerabilities and can be maliciously exploited.

Remote File Inclusion (RFI) is a type of vulnerability most often found on websites. It allows an attacker to include a remote file, usually through a script on the web server. The vulnerability occurs due to the use of user-supplied input without proper validation. This can lead to something as minimal as outputting the contents of the file, but depending on the severity.

SQL often referred to as Structured Query Language is a programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, its scope includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, and data access control. SQL injection or SQLi is a code injection technique that exploits a security vulnerability in some computer software. An injection occurs at the database level of an application (like queries). The vulnerability is present when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and unexpectedly executed. Using well designed query language interpreters can prevent SQL injections.

Here are some tips and factsheets you would love to check since they are mostly universal in the hackerdom culture and people know it by default. If you do not know this by default, you are missing something and need to work on it:

  1. Ankit Fadia’s seminars are crap and its courses too.
  2. Getting access to router doesn’t provide you access to network.
  3. One cannot just press the key and hack-away a system or bring down the SCADA power grids.
  4. There is no powerful software or an antivirus program or utility which could detect all the malware which are existent.

Would add many if there are feedbacks on some ideas and what could be possibly be missing. Leave your feedbacks in the comments and I’d appreciate if you could whip out some original sources. Roger Out.

Undefined security voodoo people..

I might not had added this before but since it’s too deep and possibly very deeper to understand various people, this post is dedicated to the morons I had met in past and intend to meet in the future. Life is no shorter than what I initially thought. Morons make lifespan seem more longer than it actually is. Now, some people may cal us the ‘voodoo people’ because we  stay awake late night working on problems and understanding things. It’s not on us to always judge what we do, but it is only us who can judge ourselves. It so happens that people who are in quest to innovate something must be first put to an endless criticism, moronic situations, and real world sociological problems to which they must deal with at an intense shutter speed rate all the time.

This happened me in the past and has been happening to me now. This post is for them, if found in good conditions; alike minds can take a peek at and know they are not the only ones left from the situations described here. The situations been very brightly put up to you to make you feel defeated at times. These situation could be communication, friends, family, finances and a whole range of more moronic useless points which have no real solutions and stop your efforts to know the unknown and solving your own curiosity. To be on the personal side, most of my early days of my research faced problems from the social side and now has lately been limited to friends, college, and roommates since I had to somehow shift town to make myself up to the research I was pursuing.

To pinpoint the troubles, I will lie down some energetic points which I had been facing and am facing now.

  • Trouble with communicating to people who have persistent level of low understanding
  • Some are not spiritually awake, and even in their own problems, they teach me what spiritualism is
  • College professors trying to outsmart everyone else and think they know everything after having a M.Tech certification
  • There are other problems including roommate complaining about night wake policies and not being able to sleep because of the keystroke sounds
  • Complains from remote phone which would be made by parents to really not know what’s going on
  • Rumors from friends and suspecting me of doing job which is beyond their explanation
  • The above happens due to absence at college, brief absence..

There are more but no limited to rumors of the old blatant moronic thinking society, peer pressure to attend parties where you just get drunk and never really will be likely around the people who have the same mindset. Bu same mindset I mean to talk on ground basics of something which puts you to thinking and solving problems out of the reality check sake.  We do security, we do coding, that’s what we can surely (at least me) can try finding among the local community parties. To be honest, I only found some of them who have the actual curiosity to even arrange those parties if not Defcon, Toorcon, Nullcon or Malcon. But these are conferences and they are not like local chapters, it’s more like spending to attend keynotes and spend time with security voodoo people. That’s not what I call local parties. That’s a party where you attend to meet people more broad who might have no residency at your town. Now, there is more to this, with changing lifestyles, there are more people into fake their possessions they really do not possess at the first place. You will find girls bragging all day about clothes, people screaming on faces about how much pocket-money he/she can spend over the next upcoming mobile set and absolutely forgetting about the real tech smart! not tech savvy, but you call this as making up to something you are truly not! we see things from the other side, voodoo people!


Headache with b1tcypt1on!

Headache with b1tcypt1on!

Windoz b1tcrypt1on made me mad early this morning today. Had to format my external disk to recover the same. I think there should be more documentation related to bde-repair and bde-status because these recovery options are really great but lacks some GUI for the startups. Not only BitLocker Encryption takes long, but if your hard disk suffers from some pre-errors, the encryption stops at a point and when you need to access the disk, neither you can attempt to strike the passoword, nor recover it via bde-repair on Windows 8. Bad windoz with bad BitLocker entities!

  • Does not provide extensive documentation.
  • Bad support community, when asked they say to go to a professional data recovery center. seriously? 😉
  • The problem was only resolved via formatting the external disk, which is a bad idea.
  • The format seemed to be blocked by the conventional method, like right clicking and then formatting.
  • Had to go to the computer management, loaded up virtual disk config, and then deleted the whole disk.
  • Once allocated, I had to then format.
  • In order to recover my data, I had to fire up Stellar NTFS recovery and then recover, recovery isn’t finsihed yes; so can’t say if it would work.
  • The bitlocker encryption failed at a certain point due to disk error never prompted me at the start (should had checked auto before it tries to encrypt, no?)
  • The bitlocker changed my partition from NTFS healthy to RAW, and it was more serious to recover a partition from a RAW disk.
  • There were no disk icons on control panel bitlocker encryption management, and hence no options to unlock!
  • There were access denied and other various errors like “No paramter found” upon a try to access the external disk.
  • bde-repair from -rk or -rp (recovery keys, recovery passwords {48 keys} or even a .bek file) failed.
  • This concludes, chkdsk /f -r fails when you do a bitlocker encrypt and you have a no way out, certainly you have to end up recovering your data after you delete the disk itself from the computer management console and then create the same partition again. Once done, try recovering the data!

I had a lot of data on my external harddisk, some are not coming back as I fear the data which were already encrypted has been lost forever, the rest would however be worth a try and I am going to try recovering all this very afternoon. I had a large shock after I woke up this morning and encountered a bad day. Backup is a must but such large quantity of data could only be saved on a hard disk rather than a optical disk drive. I would ask people not to use MS Bitlocker encryption. TrueCrypt is better!

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